In what ways does institutional / systemic racism exist in society? (USA)
People of color are likely to receive harsher prison sentences than white people who commit the same crime.
Unconscious bias of healthcare providers, e.g. not mentioning a particular treatment if they assume the patient can't afford it.
Implicit racial bias affects the decisions police make, usually in favor of white people - even police who sincerely believe themselves not to be racist.
Public school budgets are often correlated with property values: rich neighborhoods are more likely to be more 'white' and to have better teachers and more money for education.
In the 1930s, the Home Owners' Loan Corporation often considered African American neighborhoods to be a higher default risk, making it harder for African Americans to receive housing loans. This has had long lasting effects that are still felt today.
Standardized testing is a form of institutional racism, because it is biased in favor of people from particular socio-cultural backgrounds.