When is speech violence?

5 answers

Context

(2017) 81% of US undergraduates agree that “Words can be a form of violence.” 🌐 c8.nrostatic.com (PDF)
  • Hate speech on social media does incite people to commit actual violence in real life.

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  • Since a democratic state holds a monopoly on violence, the idea that speech is violence would be directly at odds with the freedom of expression.

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  • It isn't, but this notion will be used to justify actual violence.

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  • It depends on how we define "violence".

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  • Speech can cause stress; chronic stress has negative physical effects; therefore speech can be physically violent.

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