What factors contribute to the gender pay gap?
Women are, on average, more agreeable than men. This could be relevant when negotiating a salary for a particular role.
Young men are more likely than young women to relocate for work. This would open up more opportunities for a higher salary.
Women generally prefer to take softer skilled jobs, rather than pursuing careers in eg engineering
Men are more likely than women to work in dangerous jobs, which are typically compensated with higher wages.
In many professions, men are more likely to be promoted than their female colleagues.
For a variety of reasons, women strongly value a short commute and therefore must be compensated more than men to accept far-away jobs. As a result, they are more likely to work close to home in jobs that pay relatively less.
Many career-focused women find that starting a family changes their priorities, and realise that there is more to life than just working all the time.
On average, men work more hours than women.
In some industries, sex-based discrimination in the workplace has pushed women away.
Even in societies which strive to ensure equality of opportunity, men and women still sort themselves into the roles they prefer, rather than roles that would achieve equal pay.
Men are more likely than women to apply for a job when they don't necessarily have all of the listed skill requirements. Women tend to only apply for jobs where they have most or all of the skills already.
Men are more likely to take jobs that require a large sacrifice, eg executive jobs that are demanding on time / stress / quality of life
The gap begins before the workplace: in higher education, women on average choose to study lower paying fields, or lower paying specialities in higher paying fields.
Women take more time on maternity leave than men take as paternity leave.
Unconscious bias can make us associate female confidence as being "pushy", whereas we see confidence in men as only a positive trait. This can make a huge difference in favour of men in face-to-face job interviews.